Saturday, September 24, 2022

Il Guercio and Uno from the Tenuta di Carleone estate (Radda in Chianti, Chianti Classico, Tuscany)

Tenuta Carleone di Castiglione, located in Chianti Classico's Radda in Chianti, is the fruit of the vision of an Austrian entrepreneur - Karl Egger -- and the winemaking skills and regional knowledge of an English expat -- Sean O' Callaghan.

Egger and his family were regular visitors to Chianti and eventually decided to start a winery. Towards that end he bought a 100-ha property comprised of wooded hills, small rivers, and fertile plains. For the winemaking effort he was put in touch with Sean O'Callaghan, who was, at the time, working with another producer in the area. The winery was launched in 2012.

The focus is Sangiovese and 7 ha of the estate has been set aside for growth of the variety. The vineyards sit on a mix of limestone, sandstone, and compacted shale soils. 

Sean's farming philosophy revolves around organic and biodynamic principles with most of the property organic; or in the process of being so. As regards winemaking, he is non-interventionist, opts for long macerations, and eschews fining and filtration.

The estate produces three 100% Sangiovese wines (Uno, Il Guercio, and Chianti Classico); one Sangiovese dominant wine (Due; 95% Sangiovese, 5% Merlot); a Cabernet Franc and Merlot blend (Il Randagio); a 100% Alicante Bouschet (Tinto); and a Sangiovese Rosato.

I recently tasted the 2020 Il Guercio as well as the 2019 Uno. 

The Il Guercio is made from Sangiovese grapes sourced from the 700-m asl Mello vineyard in Gaiole in Chianti. Grapes are late-picked and fermented in steel and cement tanks with 20% whole bunches. The wine is macerated for 4 months and aged in steel and cement tanks for 12 months.

The wine had a complex nose with lifted aromatics. Beeswax, red and black pepper, green herbs, dark cherry, baking spices, and ginger. An altogether pleasing nose. Red cherries and a biting acidity courses down the spine of the palate to a spicy, persistent finish. Medium weight and whole-palate-engaging. Non-aggressive tannins. Youthful but not unpleasantly so. Boatloads of post-tannin promise.

The 2019 Uno showed very sweet red fruit, beeswax, lifted aromatics, forest floor, depth, vanilla, sawdust, fresh wood chips, red pepper, and a savoriness. Elegant. Acidity and red fruit on the palate. Broad. Persistent. Metallic, with green tannins. Long, woody finish.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Thursday, September 22, 2022

The story of wine in Iran

In his book exploring the origin of viniculture, Dr. Patrick E. McGovern pointed to a number of ancient wine origin stories and highlighted the Persian entrant. According to the tale, one King Jamshid, king of the world, was such a lover of grapes that he had them placed in a jar (to ensure a year-round supply) and had that jar labeled "poison."  One of the harem consorts had been suffering with a terrible headache and, to end the misery, drank the liquid that had pooled in the jar.  After a long, deep sleep, she awoke, miraculously cured of her condition.  She relayed the story to the king who recognized the medicinal benefit of the brew and ordered that it be made in greater quantities for broader consumption.

In truth, Neolithic inhabitants of the Caucasus region were the first humans to domesticate the wild grapevine and produce wine. 

The first wine was made in this region

From this origin point, the knowledge travelled along the two paths illustrated in the map caption below.

Diffusion of wine drinking from its origins in the
Caucasus: (i) Southwest to Syria, Lebanon,
Israel/Palestine, and then on to Egypt and
(ii) south into Mesopotamia and along the spine of the
Zagros Mountains into Shiraz in Persia (Iran)

Archaeological finds at two Iranian sites (the Neolithic Hajji Firuz Teppe and the Bronze Age Godin Tepe) attest to an early association of wine with Iran.

Red oval highlights archaeological sites where proof
 of winemaking in ancient Iran (Persia) was unearthed. 

Hajji Firuz Tepe, an ancient town located in the northern Zagros Mountains of Iran, was the subject of an archaeological excavation in 1968 at which five 2.5 gallon (9 liter) jars were found embedded in an earthen floor along a wall of a Neolithic mud brick building.  Two of these jars had a yellowish residue on the bottom which, after being subjected to infrared liquid chromatography and wet chemical analysis, proved to be a combination of calcium tartrate and terebinth tree resin.  Tartaric acid in the amounts found can only be associated with grapes and the amount of wine that would be housed in the five containers would be much more than required for a single family's use.  Clay stoppers that perfectly fit the openings at the top of the clay jars were found in close proximity to the jars and was assumed to have been used to prevent the contents from turning to vinegar.  These factors led the archaeologists to tag this site as a wine-production facility -- playfully called "Chateau" Hajji Firuz by Dr. McGovern. As wines in Greece even today are resinated, the assumption is that resin was added to Neolithic wines either as a preservative or for medicinal purposes.

Jar from Hajji Firuz Tepe

While the Hajji Firuz Tepe finds prove wine production in Persia in the Neolithic -- and pretty close to the dawn of winemaking -- another Persian site shows winemaking further south in the Zagros Mountains; and at a later date. Godin Tepe is a site located high up in Iran's Central Zagros Mountains. In its heyday it was located along a major ancient trade route that later became the famed Silk Road, the route that linked China to the Mediterranean.

The McGovern team subjected a reddish residue -- obtained from jars found at this site and dated to 3500 to 3000 BC -- to liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectroscopy testing and showed evidence of tartaric acid -- a fingerprint for grapes -- and tree resin, an antioxidant which is known to restrain wine aging.

Grape wine was a known and widespread product in the pre-Islamic Middle East where "the highly developed wine cultures in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Iran, and the Syrian-Palestinian region created a trade route network not only in the Middle East but westwards to Europe ... and eastwards to India" (Brinkman).

Pre-Islamic Mesopotamia was "the land of wine-soaked royal banquets, of alcohol-induced divination, and of prophecy inspired by intoxicating drinks" (Matthee). Zoroastrianism, one of the world's oldest religions, served as the state religion of ancient religious temples from 650 BC until the Muslims conquered the country in the mid-7th century. In Zoroastrianism, "wine symbolized liquid gold and the flowing fire of the liquid sun, and as such had a ritual function, being part of the libation ritual in which it is a substitute for blood."

The advent of Islam in 7th-century Iran formally made wine drinking illegal in the lands  but did little to interrupt its consumption in the newly conquered greater Iran (Mesopotamia, the Iranian plateau, the Caucasus, and Central Asia as far as the Oxus River). This "native" habit of wine/alcohol consumption was reinforced by an influx of Turkic Mongol peoples from Central Asia who, collectively, had a reputation for "dipsomania." According to Matthee, both the Seljuks and Mongols were notorious for their binge drinking and "subsequent dynasties continued the habit of elites indulging in alcoholic excesses in flagrant violation of Islamic law."

The Safavids took power in 1501 and ruled until the 18th century. In that period wine drinking was mostly tribal and "wedded to outdoor spaces." Grapes were locally cultivated and pressed by foot or a heavy press before fermentation in vats. The completed wine was stored either in small vessels or large basins.

Alcohol consumption in large quantities by the Shah and his entourage "continued to have a spiritual, even sacral dimension reminiscent of the ancient libation rite." The king was supposed to drink --- a sign of his stature as a big man and a way to "demonstrate his own autonomous moral space" beyond the strictures of Islam (Matthee).

Wines were not restricted to grapes for raw material. Rather, raisins, dates, and a variety of fruits were pressed into service as raw material and the juices of these material could all be mixed into the finished wine.

In Safavid Iran the person in charge of the wine cellar was called a wine steward. Implements used in the enjoyment of wine were kept in wine cellars and included cups, goblets, long-necked flasks, and musical instruments. For the wealthy, the cups and bowls were made of gold, silver, and glass while the commoners would utilize containers made of clay, wood, or copper. Wineskins were used for the transport of wine or outdoor consumption.

In 1979 Iran's new Islamic rulers banned alcohol consumption, shut down wineries, ripped up commercial vineyards and "consigned to history a culture stretching back thousands of years" (, 2/3/17).

Stephanie Brinkman, Wine in Hadith -- from Intoxication to Sobriety, in Bert G. Fragner, Ralph Kauz and Florian Schwarz (eds.), Wine Culture in Iran and Beyond, ORW, 2014.
Rudi Mathee, The Ambiguities of Alcohol in Iranian History, in Bert G. Fragner, Ralph Kauz and Florian Schwarz (eds.), Wine Culture in Iran and Beyond, ORW, 2014.
Dr. Patrick E. McGovern, Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origin of Viniculture, Princeton University Press, 2003.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Saturday, August 27, 2022

A tasting of selected Carpineto Tuscan wines

Kissimmee's Vintage Vino recently hosted a tasting of selected Carpineto wines and, while I was unable to attend in person, I bought the particular wines to taste at my leisure.

The Carpineto winery was founded in 1967 in Chianti Classico by Giovanni Carlo Sacchet and Antonio Carlo Zaccheo and has subsequently expanded to include holdings in other major Tuscan wine producing regions. The company "prides itself on its sustainable, carbon neutral farming techniques and ... aromatic, ageworthy, approachable ... wines."

Fruit for its wines are sourced from "500 ha of sustainably farmed land spread among 5 carbon neutral estates ..." The locations and characteristics of those estates are illustrated in the chart below.

The wines included in the tasting were as follows:
  • Vino Nobile di Montepulciano Riserva 2016
  • Brunello di Montalcino 2016
  • Chianti Classico Riserva 2016
  • Chianti Classico Gran Selezione 2015
  • Farnito Cabernet Sauvignon 2015
  • Molin Vecchio IGT 2012.
The Brunello di Montalcino was vinified with frequent pump-overs during a 15-day maceration period. The wine was aged in Slavonian oak for 3 years and an additional 6 months in bottle. This wine is complex on the nose with notes of violets, berries, and black pepper. Balanced on the palate with tar, curry, spice, and mint flavors accompanied by a stony minerality. A long, sweet finish.

The Vino Nobile de Montepulciano Riserva is primarily Sangiovese along with Canaiolo and other authorized varietals. The skin and must was macerated for 10 - 15 days with frequent pump-overs. The majority of the wine was aged for 2 years in 5500 L Slavonian oak barrels with a small component aged in French oak barrels. The wine was further aged in bottle for 6 - 8 months prior to release on the market.

Tobacco on the nose along with dark fruits, baking spices, rust, and mint. Black fruits, black pepper, and a savoriness. Great acid levels.

The grapes for the Gran Selezione were sourced from a 2-ha plot on the Dudda estate. Grapes were hand-selected and then vinified by indigenous yeasts in small stainless steel tanks. The wine was aged in French oak for 18 months. Red fruit, baking spices, licorice, and baked almonds on the nose. Balanced red fruit on the palate.

The Chianti Classico Riserva is primarily Sangiovese with contributions from Canaiolo and other red varieties. The wine is vinified with medium-duration maceration and then aged in Slavonian and French oak barrels for 12+ months. The wine is transferred into stainless steel tanks prior to bottling. 

Rich and layered on the nose, with notes of raspberry, vanilla, ripe fruit, and currants. Soft, full, round mouthfeel. A creaminess accompanies bright acidity and chewy tannins. Flavors of cherry, raspberry, and coal. A long, slightly bitter finish. Bright future. One of my favorites of the wines in this group.

The Farnito is made from 100% Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from the Gaville and Montepulciano estates. The grapes were fermented in stainless steel tanks with 10 - 15 days of maceration and periodic pump-overs. The wines experienced full malolactic fermentation  before aging for 12 months in used French and American oak barriques. The wine spends an additional 8 months in bottle before it is released on the market. 

Elegant on the nose with aromas of violets, dark fruits, baking spices, mint, and a creaminess. Broad-based on the palate with black fruit flavors and tar preceding a green, herby finish.

Unlike the other wines, the Molin Vecchio is IGT; but it does not allow that fact to get in its way. Grapes are sourced from a Montepulciano vineyard that was planted in 1995 at 4464 vines/ha. Planted varieties include Sangiovese, Canaiolo, Colorino, and Merlot, all on 420A rootstock.

The wine is a blend of 80% Sangiovese clone A548, 10% Cabernet Sauvignon clone CL15, and 10% Syrah clone 470. The grapes were subjected to small-lot fermentation using indigenous yeasts. The must was macerated for 15 days with frequent aeration, pump-overs, and punch-downs. After malolactic fermentation the wine was aged in new French and American oak barrels for 12 months. The wine was racked and bottled unfiltered and then aged for an additional 4-5 months.

Black fruit, smoke, bacon fat, nutmeg, vanilla, and currants on the nose. Nose transits to the palate. Great weight with silky tannins and a long, rich finish.

Overall, a good lineup. I was especially pleased with the Chianti Classico Riserva and the Molin Vecchio.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Tuesday, July 26, 2022

Salt & The Cellar by Akira Back, Orlando's newest Fine-Dining entrant

Chef Akira Back’s Salt & The Cellar, ensconced at ette, one of Orlando’s newest concept hotels, is currently providing one of the most scintillating dining experiences on offer in the city. I was alerted to the restaurant, and it’s fare, by two separate sets of friends who dined there and left singing its praises. I had to investigate.

The ette hotel is located in the heart of one of Disney's tourist zones, in close proximity to some of the Disney attractions. Access is via exit 64 on I4 and then travelling westward on Irlo Bronson Memorial Highway. Given the traffic volumes in this area, it is prudent to add to your travel time budget in order to ensure timely arrival.

The restaurant is described in its literature as "an Innovative Mediterranean Asian restaurant serving breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea and dinner." It does not serve alcoholic beverages, offering instead a number of inspired mocktails prepared by a resident mixologist. These mocktails are made-to-order and a number of them are finished tableside. Winelovers are encouraged to bring their own beverages for corkage-free consumption.

As you drive under the hotel overhang, the car doors are opened by the valet and a Bellman, the latter of whom asks if we are here for dinner and the name for the reservation.He relieved me of my wine bag as he escorted us inside to the Hostess stand. He passed us, and my wine bag, onto the hostess who verified our reservation and then led us to our table. Once seated we were presented with the food and mocktail menus.

Menu entry point

Menu jump page

Food menu

The restaurant decor is eye-catching, as is the color-coordinated staff attire. The ambience and service up to this time served to reassure us of the pleasing experience to come.

The table setting was immaculate with chopsticks available for those so disposed. Each table sports an ice-filled bucket for chilling wines or champagne brought in by customers.

Our waiter was Paul and he showed up brandishing the bottle of English Sparkling from my wine bag (the bag had been deposited with the bartender by the hostess) and immediately plunged it into the ice bucket at our table. He the proceeded to tell us about the restaurant, the pedigree of the chef, the restaurant philosophy, and how staff training reflected that philosophy. After taking water orders, he went over the mocktail menu.

Parlo and Ken opted for mocktails with the former ordering the Foreshadow and the latter Into the Woods.The tableside presentation of the mocktails was elevated. Both Parlo and Ken were pleased with their orders with Parlo going on to order Where the Clouds End (too thick, she said) and Hidden Path (she loved).

Foreshadow: Coconut, Cleared Pineapple, 
0% White Rum, Citric Syrup, and Jelly
with Coconut

Hidden Path: Crodino, Balsamic Vinegar,
Ginger Ale, Dehydrated Strawberries,
0% Gin, Acorn 0% Vermouth

Where Clouds End: Yuzu Tonic, Lemon Cordial,
Espresso, 0% Coffee Liquor

        Into the Woods: Fresh green herbs, ginger, cucumber, 
                 lime, cookie crumble, forest aromatic mist

In the intervening period I had scanned the QR Code and gained access to the menu. We set about ordering appetizers. Paul had alerted us to the fact that all dishes would be placed in the center of the table and would thus be shareable. We ordered the Grilled Eggplant, Akira Back Tuna Pizza, and the AB Wagyu Tacos. Parlo is Gluten-free so Paul said he would have the Chef prepare an appropriate option for her. That option turned out to be something he called Beyond Tacos, a plant-based filling inside lettuce leaves.

The tacos were very flavorful and were livened up with a touch of spice.There was an exciting contrast between the pizza base and the raw tuna. I enjoyed all of these dishes immensely.

AB Wagyu Tacos

Beyond Tacos

Akira Back Tuna Pizza

Grilled Eggplant

We followed the appetizers with a Black Miso Cod course and followed that with a Caesar Salad and Togarashi Fries.

Black Miso Cod

Caesar Salad with Tofu dressing

Togarasi Fries

For our main courses we had the New York Strip and the Jidori Chicken with Vegetable Fried Rice and Roasted Broccoli as sides. The Chef recommends that a minimum of three salts be added to the steak to complete its seasoning. The selected salts were brought to the table when the steak was delivered.

Jidori Chicken

Vegetable Fried Rice

NY Strip Steak

We had the Yuzu Curd for dessert.

Yuzu Curd

This was an absolutely stunning evening. This was a Michelin-Star-worthy dining experience. As Parlo described it, "this was one of my best dining experiences in Orlando. The food, service, and ambience were all excellent and the environment was relaxing. It was worth every penny that we spent."

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Saturday, July 9, 2022

The Falanghina cultivar: At home in Campania

Ian D'Agata (Native Wine Grapes of Italy) has tagged the Falanghina variety as "... one of the greatest success stories in Italian wine of the last thirty years ..." in that it has "... managed to break through barriers in Italy, as experts and beginners alike look for it in stores and on restaurant wine lists ..." As was the case for Phoenix-like Italian varieties such as Schiopettino and Timorasso, Falanghina was on the brink of extinction before being rescued by Leonard Mustili and "a few other local growers and producers" in the early 1970s.

The Falanghia variety is grown in Molise, Puglia, and Abruzzo but Campania -- and the region's Benevento province -- is its home. It is the most widely planted variety in Campania, with its 3000 ha representing 15% of the region's plantings. The grape is grown in all five of Campania's provinces but Benevento is king of the hill with 80% of the total plantings.

Falanghina's name, according to D'Agata, derives from the Latin falange (phalanx) due to its vine-support poles resembling the typical formation of the ancient Roman legions. Key characteristics of the variety are shown in the chart below.

The chart following shows the DOC Falanghina production zones while the one immediately following shows the composition of the wines.

As shown in the preceding chart, Falanghina is a versatile variety, supporting sparkling, still, and sweet styles and blends or varietal wines in each of the foregoing cases. Beginning in 2011, four of the areas within Sannio DOC were designated as subzones and wines made therein can so identify on the labels: Guardia Sanframondi (Guardiolo), Sant'Agata dei Goti, Solopaca, and Taburno.

Gambero Rosso describes the Falanghina wine as "fine and floral with a citrusy character and balanced flavor." It has been elsewhere described as a "bright, fresh, and aromatically complex white wine." D'Agata sees the Beneventano genotype as more structured and floral and with higher alcohol than its Flegrea counterpart. The latter, on the other hand, exhibits "flavors and aromas of unripe peach, Golden Delicious apple, apricot kernel, and cherry pit," Both genotypes are high in acid and carry a chlorophyll note.

Gamberorosso has stipulated the evolutionary path of Falanghina wines as follows:
  • Six months after harvest, the wine exhibits strong notes of banana, apple, and pineapple with secondary floral, apricot, and peach notes.
  • After 18 months, the wine has a "more balanced aromatic profile" with the fermentation notes giving way to more varietal notes and the wine becoming more complex and aromatically specific.
Most of the Falanghina wine production in Sannio falls within the domain of four large cooperatives but there are some excellent independent producers plying their trade within the zone. The cooperatives are La Guardiense, Solopaca, Taburno, and Vigna Sannite. The most important independent producers are Fontanavecchia, Terre Stregate Winery, Masseria Vendetti, and Masseria Vigne Vecchi.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Monday, March 7, 2022

The Greco cultivar and Greco di Tufo wine

Irpinia, the ancient name of Campania's Avellino Province, is home to three of the four regional DOCG production zones: Taurasi (red), Fiano di Avellino, and Greco di Tufo (the latter two both white wines). I treat the Greco variety, and its wines, in this post.

The Greco group of grapes, according to Ian D'Agata (Native Wine Grapes of Italy), "along with the Malvasias, may be the most confusing of all grapes." While the grapes, for the most part, are Greek imports, "many other grapes that never graced Greek soils were named 'greco' too because they were used to make wine in the 'Greek style' ... Rather than a family, the Grecos are a group of grapes sharing the same name and very little else."

"The most famous and best-known of all Italian Greco varieties is simply called Greco, and it is the one with which the world famous Greco di Tufo wine is made" (D'Agata). It is this variety that I will be focusing on in this post.

Greco is one of the oldest native white grape varieties in southern Italy, with roots dating back to the Greek colonization of the region. The main characteristics of the variety are detailed in the below chart.

While instances of the variety can be found in Calabria, Puglia, Lazio,, and Tuscany, it is most widely deployed in Campania. The Greco wines authorized in the region are shown in the chart below.

The chart shows, first of all, the versatility of the Greco grape in that it can be used for the production of sparkling (both Charmat and Metodo Classico), still, and dessert wines. Secondly the variety is used in blends in the coastal zones while it is mostly the dominant variety in the inland wines.

While the variety is grown across the region, it is in Tufo, and surrounding municipalities, that the variety expresses itself best. The combination of soils, cooler temperatures, persistent sunshine, and high diurnal temperature variation combine to produce wines of intense aromas and "particular mineral notes." The Campania Greco di Tufo terroirs are illustrated in the chart below.

Feudi di San Gregorio divides the Greco di Tufo zone into three broad regions with the most classic examples of the wine being produced in the central zone on the right bank of the Sabato River. Ian D'Agata focuses in even tighter, classing Tufo and Santa Paolina as Grand Cru growing zones and Montefusco as a Premier Cru, with mineral, refined wines from Tufo and bigger, more structured wines from the remaining two.

This post wraps up my coverage of the Campania DOCGs but no review of Campanian wines would be complete without a discussion of the Falanghina variety and its wines. I will undertake that task in my next post.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Sunday, February 27, 2022

Fiano: "One of Italy's greatest native wine grapes"

In a recent Wine Spectator article, Robert Camuto posed the question as to whether Fiano was Italy's greatest white wine. Ian D'Agata does not allow himself to be limited by grape type. Instead, he sees the variety as one of Italy's greatest native wine grapes, given its ability to make a wide range of wines: from light- to full-bodied; from dry to sweet; and from easy-drinking to age-worthy (Native Wine Grapes of Italy).

According to D'Agata, Fiano is one of Italy's oldest cultivars. The grape grows in medium-small, winged, pyramidal bunches with medium, oval-shaped berries. The skin is thick, with a yellow-green color that is spotted brown when ripe. This late-ripening variety is sensitive to odium but, due to its thick skin, is resistant to botrytis.

Fiano is thought to be native to Lapio, a small town west of the municipality of Avellino. It had almost disappeared in its native region but was resurrected by Antonio Mastroberardino who produced his first vintage in 1945. In addition to Campania, Fiano can now be found growing in Molise, Basilicata, Puglia, Sicily, the US (California and Oregon), and Australia (Barossa Valley, Margaret River, Adelaide Hills, Heathcote, and Riverland).

The chart following shows the distribution of Fiano terroirs within Campania.

Irpinia, the ancient name of Avellino Province, is home to three of the four Campania DOCG production zones. Irpinia's landscape is characterized by mountains, hills, and plains separated by rivers and streams. The region experiences short, very cold, snowy winters and mild, long summers. Annual rainfall is more than adequate.

There are marked differences in wines from various sites but, in Ian D'Agata's view, Fiano does best on volcanic soils in that they "allow the formation of penetratingly pure mineral and delicately fruity aromas ..." 

Fiano di Avellino DOCG is the area wherein the highest quality Fiano is produced. Ian is especially partial to the three "subzones," outlined in black on the Fiano di Avellino map in the chart above. Feudi di San Gregorio divides the wines into five classes depending on where they are grown in the DOCG. These zones are highlighted by multi-colored demarcation lines and red arrows in the Fiano di Avellino map above.

The chart below shows the allowed Fiano quality wine production zones.

I have tasted a few of the Fiano wines identified above:
The 2020 Mastroberardino Fiano di Avellino DOCG was elegant with a slightly powdery note, sweet white fruit, spice, and green herbs. On the palate, lemon-lime, minerality, salinity and a toasted bread character.

The 2019 Feudi di San Gregorio Pietracalda Fiano di Avellino DOCG was aged on the lees -- with batonnage -- for between 4 and 5 months post-fermentation. On the nose, intense apple, citrus, genip, and floral aromas. Fresh, rich, and balanced on the palate with a slightly bitter finish.

Tempe di Zoè produces Fiano wines from grapes grown in Cilento under the Paestum Fiano IGT appellation in vineyards "nestled between the mountain and the Tyrrhenian Sea." The grapes are fermented in steel tanks (after a soft pressing) and the resulting wine is aged for 6 months inm steel tanks (75%) and French oak barrels (25%). The wines spend an additional 2 months in bottle before release on the market.

The 2020 version of this wine showed herbs, spice, walnuts, a hint of honey, and minerality on the nose. Bright and fresh on the palate initially, with faded lime, minerality, and a limestone finish. With the passage of time, the wine settled down into a nice, easy-drinking gait.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme