Wednesday, October 7, 2015

Grape- and oak-derived tannins in wine

The quantity and quality of phenolic compounds (especially tannins, anthocyanins, and co-factors) in the wine post-fermentation, and the interaction of those compounds, are critical elements in the postmodern winemaking process as laid out by Clark Smith. Before delving into these phenolic interactions, some background discussion is in order, beginning with tannins in this post and followed by anthocyanins in a subsequent post.

Key tannin properties are:
  • Astringency
  • Bitterness
  • Reaction with ferric chloride
  • The ability to bind with protein.
As shown below, flavan-3-ols are the primary tannins in the flavonoid class of phenolics and are derived from the skin, seed and stem while hydrolizable tannins are primarily oak derivatives. There is some small amount of hydrolized tannin in the flavonoid group that is derived from the fleshy part of the fruit but they are bound with other non-phenolic compounds and play no part in tannin-tannin or tannin-anthocyanin interaction. Hence, flavonoid hydrolyzable tannins are not included in the following discussion.

Grape-derived tannins are primarily monomers and increase in quantity from fruit set through veraison. It is thought that the primary purpose of these compounds in the plant is as a defense against bacteria, viruses, and higher herbivores. The naturally occuring flavan-3-ol compounds are catechin and epicatechin which register at between 10 and 50 mg/L in white wines and 200 mg/L in reds. Catechin and epicatechin are characterized by a single OH group at position 3 of the C ring (shown below). The formation of the compounds gallocatechin and epigallocatechin is signaled by the presence of three OH groups in the B ring. We can also have a gallic acid acylated at position 3 of the C ring to form catechin-3-o-gallate or epicatechin-3-o-gallate.


Tannins have the ability to associate (form long chains; also called polymerization) and grape tannin polymers are called proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. These condensed tannins are unstable and, in the acidic wine environment, are subject to polymerization, hydrolysis, and depolymerization. A limited degree of polymerization occurs during fruit maturation.

If a tannin is hydrolyzed under the acidic conditions in wine, it can break up into shorter lengths, producing one electron-neutral and one positively charged tannin. The positively charged tannin thus released will react with another tannin or with an anthocyanin. In the case of tannin-tannin interaction, a longer, non-colored polymer is formed. This tannin polymerization continues until the chain is end-capped by an anthocyanin molecule.

Increasing polymerization brings increased polymer size which is quantified by a measure called degree of polymerization (DP). DP increases with wine age, yielding greater wine suppleness and a reduction in astringency. Tannin quality is generally considered to be a function of the degree of polymerization and the level of association with other molecules.

Hydrolizyable Tannins
The journey from oak tree to hydrolyzable tannin is shown in the graphic below.

According to Puech, et al., hydrolizyable tannins contain a polyhydric alcohol (more than one hydroxyl group) as the basic structural unit of which the hydroxyl group has been esterified by gallic and hexahydroxydiphenic (HHDP) acid. The bonds between these units can be easily broken -- through enzymatic action or contact with an acid or base -- to produce free gallic acid and HHDP acid, the latter of which spontaneously converts into the lactone ellagic acid by internal condensation. Oak-sourced tannins are classified as gallotannins or ellagitannins depending on the type of acid formed.

Ellagitannins may comprise up to 10% of heartwood. In the plant, ellagitannins are toxic to micro-organisms and provide the oakwood with a defense against fungal degradation. It differs from lignin by its ability to bind with, and precipitate, alkaloids, gelatins, and other proteins. Ellagitannins may be monomeric (one glucose core) or oligomeric with differences based on the position of the couplings. The most frequent ellagitannin monomers extracted from oak are vescalagin and castalagin while the most important oligomers are roburin A and E, both vescalagin or castalagin dimers, or granidin. Fully 50% of the total ellagitannin in heartwood is unextractable.

Ellagitannins influence the structure of phenolic compounds and red wines by speeding up the condensation of procyanidins while limiting their oxidative and precipitatiive degradation.

Augustin Scalbert and LaPierre Catherine, Ellagitannins and Lignin in aging of spirits in oak barrels, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistyr, November 1993.
Bruce Zoecklein, Various Enology Notes
Daniel Kuelder, The influence of commercial tannin addition on wine composition and quality, Master of Agricultural Sciences Thesis, Stellenbosch University, 2006.
James A. Kennedy, Grape and Wine Phenolics: Observations and Recent Findings, Ciencia Investigacion, 35(2), 2008.
Puech, et al., The Tannins of Oak Heartwood: Structures, Properties, and their influence on wine flavor.
Zhentian Lee, Monomeric Ellagitannin in Oaks and Sweet Gums, PhD Dissertation, 2002.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Sunday, September 27, 2015

Infographic: The elements of postmodern winemaking (after Clark Smith)

In a previous post, I graphically illustrated the high-level differences between what Clark Smith (postmodern winemaking) calls modern winemaking and what he characterizes as postmodern winemaking. In this infographic, I capture the elements of postmodern winemaking as the baseline for an extensive journey into the method which I will undertake in future posts.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Sunday, September 20, 2015

Sources and roles of phenolic compounds found in wine

Phenols are highly reactive chemical compounds of primary importance in the quality of red wines. Phenol, the basic building block, is an aromatic organic compound (formula C6H5OH) where the phenyl group (C6H5, where six bonded carbon atoms with alternating double bonds are connected to five hydrogen atoms) is bonded to a hydroxyl group (OH, where the oxygen atom is covalently bonded to an hydrogen atom). A graphical representation of a phenol is provided below.

Phenolic compounds are:
  • Responsible for the color of red grapes and wine
  • Involved in the oxidative browning of white wines
  • Contributors to taste and astringency through interactions with salivary proteins
  • Another measure of wine quality.
The two major classes of wine phenolic compounds are flavonoids (defined by a C6-C3-C6 skeleton consisting of two phenolic rings joined by a central, oxygen-containing ring -- Jackson) and nonflavonoids (possessing a C6-C1 or C6-C3 skeleton; all numbers following "C" are subscripts). The sources and roles of the phenolic compounds falling into these two classes are illustrated in the figure below and the relative concentrations of selected classes are provided in the table following.

Table 1. Generalized concentration of various phenolic compounds
present in wine
Phenolic White Wine (mg/L) Light Red Wine (mg/L) Full Red Wine (mg/L)
Volatile Trace
Hydroxycinnamic acids
Other nonflavonoids
Polymeric catechins
Source: Kennedy, et al., Grape and wine phenolics: History and perspective,
AJEV, 57(3), September 2006.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Thursday, September 10, 2015

Capensis 2013, a pleasant surprise from the Western Cape of South Africa

The Spire Collection is a curation of, and marketing vehicle for, the most esteemed wineries in the Jackson Family Wines portfolio. Last evening I attended a tasting of selected Spire Collection wines and, while a stellar array of wines was presented, the one which made the biggest impression on me was the 2013 Capensis, a Chardonnay from the Western Cape region of South Africa. This wine surprised me in that it was both excellent and from a region that I have had a hard time getting my arms around.

According to, this ultra-premium Chardonnay is a joint venture between Barbara Bank, of Jackson Family Wines, and Anthony Beck of Graham Beck Wines and was launched in 2014.

The 2013 Capensis is 100% Chardonnay (primarily clone 95) sourced from three different regions:
  • Fynbosch Vineyard Region
    • 1,719 feet elevation
    • Steep slopes
    • Clay soils
    • 60% of grapes used in the wine
  • Kaainansgal Vineyard Region
    • 2,484 feet elevation
    • 20% of grapes
  • East Bruwer Vineyard Region
    • Limestone soils
    • 20% of grapes.
The winemaker overseeing production of the wine is Graham Weerts. During the production process, some batches were inoculated while others were not. Approximately 45% of the finished wine was subjected to malolactic fermentation. The aging regime had 55% of the production aged in 100% new French oak for a period of 12 months.

The bottle we tasted last night had been decanted 40 minutes prior to the start of the tasting. In the glass it had a golden color, a testament to its oak treatment. The initial impresion was of burnt matches, vanilla, toasted oak, and smoke. After a while notes of honey dew and herbs caught the attention. On the palate smoke, coal, and a lemomy-lime acidity. Weighty. The 14.1% alcohol adds to a richness on the palate but also produces a slight burn. Lengthy finish.

Trey Christy of Spire Collection characterized this wine (I paraphrase) as a wine of promise rather than one at its destination. And I agree. This is a high-quality Chardonnay from the Chassagne-Montrachet school, more rich than mineral with the oak needing to recede further so that the underlying character of the wine can truly shine through. I bought 1/2 case of this wine at the $70 offer price.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

The Orlando (FL) Food and Wine Trail

In my recent post on the Orlando food and wine terroir, I introduced the concept of a food and wine area (FWA). While riffing from the American Viticultural Area (AVA) concept, this differs in that it is a consumption (rather than a growing) region. The figure below shows the Orlando FWA which follows the course of Interstate 4 as it wends its way from Daytona Beach in the northeast to Tampa in the southwest. The northernmost reach of the FWA is Deland-New Smyrna Beach while its southernmost extent is Tampa in Hillsborough County.

Within the broader FSA, there are a number of sub-zones each of which may contain one or more food establishment, wine establishment, or food and wine establishment. In the figure below, there is significant sub-zone pooling between Lake Mary and Celebration and significant spacing between that core and the northern and southern extremes.

The figure below illustrates, by sub-zone, the restaurants and wine bars that I believe capture the essence of Orlando as a food and wine destination. Tampa, and its restaurants, are included in this list because it is only 1 hour away and we travel there regularly to enjoy the fine fare offered at its establishments.

The table below lists the restaurants alphabetically along with their cuisine types and links to their websites. Of the cuisine styles, steakhouses are the most dominant with fully eight restaurants self-identifying as such. Italian (5) and American (4) are the next most popular cuisine styles.

Web Site
Aged Steaks
Bohemian Hotel -Celebration
Spanish Steakhouse
Capital Grille
Chatham’s Place
Fine Dining
Steak and Lobster
Cress Restaurant
Globally Inspired
Del Frisco Double Eagle
Eddie V’s
Prime Seafood
F&D Kitchen & Bar
Highball & Harvest
Kabooki Sushi
Casual American
Mise en Place
Modern American
New World
Regional Italian
Ruth’s Chris
Spanish River Grill
Spanish Latino Fusion
The Ravenous Pig
Victoria & Albert’s
Modern American
Steak and Fine Dining

I need to reiterate that this restaurant list is based on my favorites and probably reflects my wine preferences. The steak offerings would pair well with my Bordeaux and Napa wines while my Italian collection is at home in Enzo's, Peperoncino, and the like.

Of the steakhouses, Bern's aged meats are legendary and a meal at the restaurant is incomplete without a tour of the meat aging room, the kitchen, and the wine cellar. Do not leave without doing dessert. I have captured one of my many great Bern's experiences in the following post ( The 50,000 or so wines in the cellar are a legacy of the yeoman collecting effort by the restaurant's founder and is the raison d'etre for many a cross-country trip to the locale.

All of the other mentioned steakhouses will meet and exceed your expectations in terms of the quality of the food, level of service, and wine list. Capa is relatively new but has established a strong foothold with its tapas-inspired small plates and robust steaks. It also has an excellent wine list which was honchoed by Jill Davis as Sommelier before she left for Del Frisco's Double Eagle. I have eaten at the Del Frisco Double Eagle once in a pre-opening affair so have not yet rated its food. The wine offering is a stupendous 10,000 bottles which are attractively stored and displayed throughout the restaurant.

Other than Bern's, the restaurants I enjoy going to most are Victoria & Albert's, Cress Restaurant, Luma, Eddie V's, Norman's, and Mise en Place. Of these, Eddie V's is the newest (and it is also a Darden chain) but do not be fooled by these facts. Both the menu and wine list are extensive and of extremely high quality. As is the actual food. The environment is also extremely pleasing to the eye. This is probably the third or fourth best restaurant in the FWA.

Victoria & Albert's continues to roll along as a bastion of high-end fine dining even in the face of declining support for this style among area restaurants and patrons. The Chef (Scott Hunnell) is one of the most respected in Orlando and a a seat at his table was second only to season tickets at Lambeau Field in desirability. Disney has since amended its policy such that you have to be staying at the Grand Floridian in order to buy out the table. That was a bummer but we can still dine at the Queen Victoria Room and get the same menu as is being served at the Chef's Table. The problem is that a max of 16 people are so accommodated. Some of my experiences at V&A are captured in the following posts ( and

The most interesting tastes grace your palate when you pay a visit to Cress Restaurant. Chef Hari Pulapaka (a math professor by day) and his wife Jenneffer (a Podiatrist by day) have created a treasure in the far reaches of the FSA; but it is worth the bother. These folks, along with Bill Budzinskifrom the Elusive Grape (the wine bar across the street), have given us something to look forward to every time we launch in their direction. Some stories about these two locations follow.

The Elusive Grape

Cress Restaurant

Well the stories can go on and on but I think the point has been made. Right @marcygordon? Orlando is far from a foodie wasteland.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Wednesday, September 2, 2015

The Orlando (FL) food and wine terroir

At this year's Wine Bloggers Conference, @marcygordon was ribbing me about the "food and wine desert" (I paraphrase here) that Orlando probably was and, being relatively thin-skinned about that particular issue, I invited her to come to town so that I could show her what we had to offer. I checked in with her earlier this week and she indicated (again I paraphrase) that she was awaiting the Orlando terroir report prior to finalizing her departure date. Well Marcy, this one's for you. I will cover the topic in two posts. This one covers the Food and Wine terroir and a follow-up post will illustrate the Orlando Food and Wine Trail.

Before I go any further I should mention that this is my perspective of what I am calling the Orlando Food and Wine Area (FWA; get it?), its components, and the players. Others may take issue with my characterizations and choices and there may be gaps as a result of my preference and acquaintances. This perspective has been formed by long-term residence during which time there was growth from a dependence on Disney-based restaurants to today where high quality food/wine establishments are broadly deployed throughout the region. And it has been further honed by relationships that I have developed with Chefs, wine directors, restaurant staffers, distributor employees, retailers, and other food and wine lovers resident in the area. Now back to the task at hand.

Terroir is a French word, originally confined to wine but recently extended to cheeses and other specialty foodstuff, which, (i) ties the uniqueness of a product to its place of production and (ii) elucidates the elements responsible for this manifestation of place. For me, the terroir of the Orlando FWA is as depicted in the figure below, where the interconnectedness and interworking of the contributory elements function in a manner which yields a consistently "magical" dining experience.

It all begins with the Chefs. We have evolved from an era of corporate Chefs employed by/at Disney-area hotels to one in which they have been supplemented by a brace of young, dynamic, innovative, adventurous Chefs who are just as likely to be catering to locals as to tourists and who have been at the vanguard of the farm-to-table movement. These Chefs cooperate extensively, as they strive to make Orlando a world-class foodie destination, and, on any night, are just as likely to be cooking in a fellow Chef's kitchen as in their own. Their efforts have been rewarded with a number of James Beard Semifinalist mentions. Their thrust regarding ingredients is captured by Chef Hari Pulapaka of Cress who seeks out the "freshest and tastiest seasonal produce" from Farmers Markets and local purveyors and meats, poultry, game, and cheeses from "local specialty purveyors" and "internationally acclaimed artisan farmers."

The restaurant's fare has to be aligned with the environment in which it is presented. Fine dining, for example, does not have to be restricted to a specific decor, but it is certainly exclusionary of some. For example, Victoria & Albert, Luma, and Cress are all fine-dining establishments in my book, but they exude three totally different vibes. And each works in its place.

In Orlando there is an almost incestuous relationship between the employees of wine distributors, wine directors, wait staff, and some of the younger Chefs. They hang out together at area restaurants and pubs, they switch between these job roles interminably, and they just have a lot of fun together. As a local, if you go out reasonably often, you can tap into this stream and it can elevate your overall dining experience: Wine directors plying you with their latest discoveries; distributors pulling stuff out of their ever-present bags to have you taste something interesting; fellow travelers sending something across to your table and you reciprocating. Now you may be the type that just likes to go out and sit in a corner and have a nice quiet dinner. You too are welcomed and accomodated; quietly.

There are a number of on-premise retailers -- Tim's Wine Market and The Wine Barn, for example -- and wine bars -- The Wine Room and Imperial, for example -- in the area but most of the wine consumed outside the home is probably drunk in restaurants. There are some very impressive wine lists around (Berns, 50,000+ bottles; Del Frisco's, 10,000 bottles; Victoria & Albert, 5000 bottles) but the majority of restaurants have tightly focused lists designed to highlight and emphasize their culinary offerings. Most restaurants will allow you to bring in your own bottle for a corkage fee ranging between $10 and $35.

There is a strong tradition of wine education in the Orlando wine community beginning with the distributors and extending into the restaurants themselves. Florida's wine sales operates under the three-tier distribution system and the distributors provide robust training support to the next level down as part of their sales efforts. And they have high-powered staff to assist in this effort. For example, Premier can leverage Andrew McNamara MS, who is part of their Augustan management team, into training and education efforts. Within the restaurants, there is also a major focus on wine training for staff with Darden restaurants having George Miliotes MS, and Disney having Brian Koziol MS, with partial responsibility in that area. The MS population in the area is rounded out by Jon Blazon MS, who is the VP of Sales for The Spire Collection of Jackson Family Wines. Within the restaurants, Wine Directors such as Jill Davis (Del Frisco's), Jenneffer Pulapaka (Cress), and David Arnold (Luma) excel in staff-based training initiatives.

My next post will cover the establishments that simultaneously take advantage of, and fuel, this terroir.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme

Sunday, August 30, 2015

The Finger Lakes (New York) Wine Region

The US Wine Bloggers travelled to the Finger Lakes region of New York for their 8th annual conference which, as per usual, included immersion in the wines and winemaking practices of the host region. This year was no exception as we were exposed to the wine, grape growing, winemaking practices, and the hospitality of the region's producers and support system. This blog post provides my understanding of the landscape and viticulture of the region.

The Finger Lakes is one of five major wine grape producing regions in the State of New York (the others being Long Island, Hudson River, Niagara Escarpment, and Lake Erie) and, according to, is the second largest grape growing area in the state.

New York State wine regions (Source:

The Finger Lakes region was awarded AVA status in 1982. Its coverage area encompasses 4000 square miles and 2.5 million acres of land, 9432 of which are planted to vines. A total of 118 wineries operate in the AVA.

Finger Lakes wine region

Included within the broader Finger Lakes AVA are two sub-AVAs, Seneca Lake and Cayuga Lake. The characteristics of these sub-AVAs are summarized in the table below.

Included AVAs Year Established Counties Plantings (acres) Wineries Growing Season (days)
Seneca Lake
Portions of:
Cayuga Lake

Landscape Formation
In the Late Silurian and Early Devonian periods (about 416 mya), what is today the Finger Lakes region lay beneath a warm, shallow sea which, over millions of years, deposited eroded material, corals, and shells on its bottom to form the bedrock that undergirds the region today. The deposits of those periods were primarily limestones, shales, sandstones, and conglomerates. The Silurian deposits also contained salts, gypsum, and hematite. These were predominantly sedimentary rocks.

New York State deposits by geologic age

According to the New York State Geological Survey, significant amounts of clay-like sediments were deposited in vast glacial lakes that occupied the state at the end of the last Ice Age. A map of those clay deposits is presented below and shows some intrusion into the western and southern portions of the Finger Lakes region.

Two million years ago the first of two glacial encroachments from the Hudson Bay area signaled the beginning of the Pleistocene glaciation and the eventual formation of the landscape that exists today. According to Allan Lasko's (Cornell University Professor) presentation to the bloggers at WBC15, very large lakes remained after the glaciers retreated. Gradual drainage of these post-glacial lakes led to glacial soils plus salts on the landscape and lakes of varying elevations, depth, and slope. It is estimated that there were two major ice incursions with the first doing most of the "heavy cutting" and the second leaving behind the current surface deposits.

The Finger Lakes macro-climate is humid continental with significant temperature variation between summer and winter. The mean annual temperature is 60℉. The cold winter conditions, plus the relative shortness of the growing season (190 - 205 days), should preclude successful vinifera plantings but a mix of microclimatic effects and cultural practices combine to make the growing of fine wine grapes possible:
  • The harsh winters provide an environment wherein primary buds could be destroyed or vines killed. The practice of "hilling up" protects the graft union which, according to Fox Run Vineyards Winemaker Peter Bell, is considerably more cold-sensitive than the rest of the permanent portion of the vine. The hill is taken down in the Spring to prevent Phylloxera from feeding of the scion wood (Bell) 
  • The lakes provide a mitigating effect in the fall and winter in that the water (and the air above it) is warmer than the land. As the warm air rises, the cold air moves down the slope to occupy the space thus created. This serves to drain the cold air away from the vineyards rather than staying put and damaging the vines. 
  • In the spring, the land warms up more rapidly than does the water and as that warm air rises, the cold air seeps into the open space. This cold air keeps the vines from early budding and encountering potentially damaging late spring frosts. 
According to Kay Whitehall, these lake effects are directly related to the volume and thermal mass of the lake as well as to the distance away from the lake. Her research showed, for example, a 1.72 degree difference in temperature between the weather stations at Valois and Groveland.

Annual rainfall in the region averages 34 inches. The preferred situation in grape growing is for rainfall during the winter months, but fully 60% of the Finger Lakes rainfall occurs between April and October.  An abundance of rainfall during the growing season can cause improper fruit set (a result of shattering of new blooms by rainstorms) and can encourage the growth of mildew.

Finger Lakes soils range from well-drained sandy loam to iron-oxidized red clay with the common characteristic being shallowness and sloping beds. Around Seneca Lake the bedrock is primarily shale with the southern region being a mix of sandstone and shale. Cayuga Lake bedrock is shale. The bedrock is calcareous in some places and non-calcareous in others. The limestone soil is found in the north of the region with more acidic soils to the south. In the areas with limestone soils, acid rain leaches calcium carbonate out of the bedrock and deposits it in the soils and lake. This calcium carbonate acts as a buffer against soil pH, rendering said soil ideal for grape growing. In the non-limestone zones, ground limestone has to be added to the soils to create this buffering effect.

The soils in the region have a high clay content and while clay has some beneficial qualities (moisture retention and high mineral content) it also has some disadvantages:
  • It takes longer to heat up in spring
  • Swells when it absorbs water and shrinks as it dries. This can cause cracking through which water is lost and can also damage the root system
  • Does not drain well
  • Becomes sticky when wet and structure deteriorates if worked in that condition.
Vineyards and Vines
The lakes have north-south orientations and the vineyards are located on the slopes above. The vines, therefore, have east or west aspects depending on the bank on which they are sited. Vines run perpendicular to the slope -- as a counter to erosionary tendencies - and are trained Scott-Henry or VSP, depending on soil type. According to Bell, this palnting orientation allows the plant to intercept the maximum amount of sunlight.

Drainage tiles are deployed below the surface because the water table is only 4 feet down. The relative fertility of the soils, ready access to water, and the shortness of the growing season dictate an active canopy management program in order to: ensure adequate sun exposure; promote fruit ripening; and promote air flow which, in turn, reduces disease pressure.

As shown in the tables below, the region is in the midst of a long-term shift towards a greater reliance on vinifera plantings. Fully 65% of the vinifera grown is white, with Riesling, the region's focus, experiencing a 56% increase in plantings since 2006.

Table1: Finger Lakes AVA acreage by vine type, selected years
Vine Type
Vinifera N/A
Source: Caplan and Gerling; Newman

Table 2: Finger Lakes Vinifera plantings
Color Variety Acreage
White Riesling



Pinot Gris

Gruner Veltliner N/A

Sauvignon Blanc
Red Cabernet Franc

Lemberger N/A

Pinot Noir

Cabernet Sauvignon


Source: Caplan and Gerling

The Riesling clones used in the Finger Lakes are 90, 239, 198, and 110 and the rootstock is 3309.

Diseases and Pests
A survey by Fuchs, et al., found that 2/3 of all Finger Lakes vineyards were infected with Grapevine Leaf Roll (GLR) virus (GLRaV-1, -2, and -3). Seven percent of the vineyards had low levels of infection, 21% moderate levels, and 40% had high or extremely high levels of infection. Infection with GLR complexes can result in delayed fruit maturity, poor color, and reduced yield. Infection is most likely the result of poor sanitary status of planting material and mealybugs and soft scales as vectors. The control mechanism employed is to replace infected vines or vineyards with certified products.

The insect and mite pests most likely to be encountered in Finger Lakes vineyards are shown in Table 3 below.

Table 3: Insect and Mite Pests in Finger Lakes Vineyards
Budswell to Bloom Bloom to mid-Season Towards Harvest
Steely Beetle Grape Berry Moth^ MALB
Climbing Cutworm Grape Leafhopper Spotted Wing Drosophila***
Soft Scales* Phylloxera Vinegar Flies***
Mealybugs* Grape Rootworm

Banded Grape Bug** Spider Mites

Lygocoris Bug** Japanese Beetle

Grape Plume Moth Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle (MALB)

Source: Greg Loeb
*Vectors for GLR virus
**Greatest insect risk for yield loss
***Role in spreading sour rot bacteria
^Most important arthropod pest

Atallah et al., Working Paper.
Benjamin Linhoff, Soil Acidity in Vineyards of the Finger Lakes of New York,
Fuchs et al., Survey for the Three Major Leafroll Disease Associated Viruses in Finger Lakes Vineyards in New York
Greg Loeb, Grape Insect and Mite Pests -- 2014 field season
James L. Newman, Vines, Wines, and Regional Identity in the Finger Lakes Region, Geographical Review 76(3), July 1986.
Kate Whitesell, The Lake Effect on the Surrounding Climate of the Finger Lakes in New York,
New York State Geological Service
New York Wines,
Peter Bell, Winemaker, Fox Run Vineyards, Personal communication.

©Wine -- Mise en abyme